chapter  15
18 Pages

Bioactive Food Components and the U-Shaped Health Conundrum: Vitamin D and Folate as Examples of Friends and Foes

Dietary habits are recognized as an important modiable environmental factor that can have a profound inuence on cancer risk and tumor behavior (World Cancer Research Fund 2007; Milner 2008; Mason 2009; Trump et al. 2010). Although some ndings have estimated that about 30%–40% of all cancer cases relate to dietary habits, the actual percentage is highly dependent on the foods consumed and the specic type of cancer. Both essential and nonessential food components arising from plants, animals, and mushrooms contain a host of bioactive food components that can inuence cancer in a number of model systems (Guarner and Malagelada 2003; Davis and Milner 2007). Even the bacteria in the gastrointestinal tract can inuence the metabolism of food components and

Diet and Cancer Incidence .............................................................................................................285 An Ideal Diet ..................................................................................................................................286 Biomarkers for Predicting Individual Response ............................................................................286