chapter  9
24 Pages

Nitrogenous Compounds and Supplements

Countless review papers and book chapters have described, in detail, the various ergogenic effects of creatine supplementation in humans (Casey and Greenhaff 2000; Hespel and Derave 2007; Kraemer and Volek 1999; Kreider 2003). This chapter will

9.1 Introduction .................................................................................................. 177 9.2 Creatine ......................................................................................................... 178

9.2.1 Overview and Background ............................................................... 178 9.2.2 Creatine Supplementation ................................................................. 179 9.2.3 Creatine: Muscle Physiology and Performance ................................ 180 9.2.4 Creatine and Muscle Growth Factor Expression .............................. 182 9.2.5 Creatine and Satellite Cell Activity .................................................. 185 9.2.6 Creatine and Carbohydrate Metabolism ........................................... 186 9.2.7 Creatine as a Medicinal Therapeutic ................................................ 187 9.2.8 Safety of Creatine ............................................................................. 188

9.3 Carnitine: A Rejuvenated Nutrient for Consumers and Scientists ............... 188 9.3.1 Overview and Background ............................................................... 188 9.3.2 Mechanism of Action........................................................................ 190 9.3.3 Target Populations for L-Carnitine ................................................... 191 9.3.4 L-Carnitine Dose and Bioavailability .............................................. 191 9.3.5 Safety and Side Effects ..................................................................... 192 9.3.6 Additional Information ..................................................................... 192

9.4 β-Alanine: A Fatigue Fighter? ...................................................................... 192 9.4.1 Overview and Background ............................................................... 192 9.4.2 Mechanism of Action........................................................................ 193 9.4.3 Target Populations for β-Alanine ..................................................... 193 9.4.4 β-Alanine Dose and Tissue Storage ................................................. 193 9.4.5 Safety and Side Effects ..................................................................... 194

9.5 Summary and Practical Recommendations ................................................. 194 References .............................................................................................................. 195

provide a brief overview of the seminal as well as recent research on this pleiotropic nitrogenous compound. In addition, the effects of beta-alanine and L-carnitine will also be summarized with respect to their potential for improving performance in athletes.