chapter  3
38 Pages

Aqueous-Phase Catalytic Processing in Biomass Valorization to H2 and Liquid Fuels

Fossil fuels are the primary source of energy in the world. For example, in 2008, the global energy consumption was 474 exajoules (1 EJ = 1018 J), of which 88% was derived from fossil fuel resources. As shown in Figure 3.1, renewable resources currently account for only about 7% of total energy consumption (both globally and in the United States). Primary sources of renewable energy include

3.1 Introduction ............................................................................................................................ 37 3.1.1 Current Energy Outlook ............................................................................................. 37 3.1.2 Liquid Biofuels ........................................................................................................... 39 3.1.3 Lignocellulosic Biomass .............................................................................................40 3.1.4 Processes Developed for Conversion of Lignocellullosic Biomass to Fuels .............. 41 3.1.5 Conversion of Carbohydrates and Polyols to Fuels: Thermodynamic Issues ............. 43 3.1.6 Reaction Classes for Catalytic Conversion of Carbohydrate-Derived Feedstocks .....44