Soil-structure interaction, tunnels, underground structures, foundations
Integral bridge decks have no expansion joints. Together with girders they are monolithically connected to abutments. In a full integral construction abutments are rigidly connected to piles. Consequently, an in integral bridge is a single structural unit, which accommodates thermal loading together with the surrounding soil. Elimination of deck joints brings multiple sustainability and performance benefits among which are lower construction and maintenance costs, increased durability and resilience, lower impact and noise produced by vehicular traffic, and easier future widening and replacement.