Obesity and Physical Activity
Obesity increases the risk of several chronic diseases, such as type 2 diabetes, hypertension, cardiovascular disease (CVD), in¬ammatory disorders, common cancers, depression, and chronic kidney disease (CKD). Although the global incidence of CKD is on the rise, it is termed a “silent epidemic” (Stenvinkel, 2010). Pandemic trends in overweight and obesity may be largely responsible for eclipsing this public health problem. Although there are various causes of CKD, there is a growing evidence that obesity is a risk factor-independent of conditions such as diabetes and CVD (Eknoyan, 2006; Ting et al., 2009). A Swedish case-control study of over 900 cases and matched controls with chronic renal failure (CRF) showed a threefold increase in CRF among cases who were overweight at the age of 20 (Ejerblad et al., 2006). Moreover, a recent systematic review and meta-analysis estimated that in the United States, about one-fourth and one-third of cases with kidney disease among men and women, respectively, could be attributed to overweight and obesity (Wang et al., 2008).