chapter  3
24 Pages

Electrolyte and Acid–Base Disorders

Chronic kidney disease (CKD) affects more than 25 million Americans, including more than 350,000 persons on dialysis, at a current cost of $17 billion annually (Fox et al., 2010; Ikizler, 2009). Renal disease is very frequently accompanied by electrolyte abnormalities, which must be recognized and managed. In modern medicine, it is impossible to have a comprehensive discussion on the spectrum of disease, goals of treatment, and prognostic factors that determine patient outcomes without including

3.1 Fluid and Electrolytes Introduction ........................................................................................ 31 3.1.1 Sodium ....................................................................................................................... 32

3.1.1.1 Hyponatremia .............................................................................................. 32 3.1.1.2 Hypernatremia .............................................................................................34