chapter  4
18 Pages

Acute Kidney Injury

References ........................................................................................................................................ 71

Acute renal failure (ARF) is an abrupt decrease in the glomerular ”ltration rate (GFR) occurring over a period of hours to days, resulting in the failure of the kidney to excrete nitrogenous waste products and maintain ¬uid and electrolyte homeostasis. The retention of nitrogenous wastes is usually assessed by measuring blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and serum creatinine. However, immediately after a kidney injury, BUN or creatinine levels may be normal, and the only sign of a kidney injury may be decreased urine production.