chapter  25
Influence of Dietary Fat on the Development of Cancer
Pages 20

I. Introduction.......................................................................................................................... 633 II. Epidemiological Studies ...................................................................................................... 633 III. Experimental Carcinogenesis Studies.................................................................................. 635

A. Skin Carcinogenesis..................................................................................................... 635 B. Hepatocarcinogenesis................................................................................................... 635 C. Colon Carcinogenesis .................................................................................................. 636 D. Pancreatic Carcinogenesis............................................................................................ 637 E. Mammary Carcinogenesis............................................................................................ 638 F. Other Sites.................................................................................................................... 638

IV. Mechanisms by Which Dietary Fat May Influence Carcinogenesis ................................... 638 A. Membrane Fluidity....................................................................................................... 638 B. Toxicity ........................................................................................................................ 638 C. Eicosanoid Metabolism................................................................................................ 639 D. Caloric Effect ............................................................................................................... 639 E. Effect on Tumor Initiation ........................................................................................... 639 F. Lipid Peroxidation ....................................................................................................... 640 G. Alteration of Specific Gene Expression....................................................................... 640

V. Summary and Conclusions .................................................................................................. 641 References ..................................................................................................................................... 641

Cancer is currently the second leading cause of death in the United States. It is estimated that over 1,400,000 people will be diagnosed with cancer in the United States in 2007 and that over 550,000 will die from it [1]. One of the primary mechanisms for reducing cancer deaths may be by altering the diet, and one proposed way is by decreasing the consumption of dietary fat. For example, the American Institute for Cancer Research states to ‘‘limit consumption of fatty foods, particularly those of animal origin’’ [2]. On the other hand, the American Cancer Society no longer specifically recommends lowering fat intake, and instead advises individuals to ‘‘consume a healthy diet with an emphasis on plant sources’’ [1].