chapter  27
Food Applications of Lipids
Pages 22

II. Frying Oils and Fats.......................................................................................................... 687 III. Spreads: Butter, Ghee, Margarine, Vanaspati................................................................... 687

A. Butter ......................................................................................................................... 687 B. Ghee .......................................................................................................................... 690 C. Margarine and Spreads.............................................................................................. 690 D. Vanaspati ................................................................................................................... 693

IV. Baking Fats, Doughs, Shortenings.................................................................................... 694 V. Salad Oils, Mayonnaise and Salad Cream, French Dressings.......................................... 695 VI. Chocolate and Confectionery Fats .................................................................................... 695 VII. Ice Cream .......................................................................................................................... 698 VIII. Incorporation of Vegetable Oils into Dairy Products ....................................................... 698 IX. Edible Coatings and Spray Processing ............................................................................. 699 X. Emulsifying Agents........................................................................................................... 699

References ..................................................................................................................................... 700

The annual production of oils and fats now exceeds 150 million tons and is on a rising curve. Table 27.1 contains data for four major vegetable oils, some minor vegetable oils, and the animal fats. These show the increasing dominance of vegetable oils and particularly of palm oil, soybean oil, rapeseed=canola oil, and sunflower oil. Until the recent rapid increase in the production of biodiesel, global oil and fat production was split between food use, animal feed, and the oleochemical industry in a ratio of about 80:6:14, but this ratio is changing and it has been predicted that by 2020 the distribution will change to 68:6:26 [5]. The fast-growing production of biodiesel is likely to put upward pressure on oil=fat prices.