chapter  28
Lipid Biotechnology
Pages 60

I. Introduction.......................................................................................................................... 708 II. Microbial Production of Fats and Other Lipids .................................................................. 709

A. Fats and Lipids from Biomass of Microorganisms Using Nonlipidic or Lipid-Containing Carbon Sources-Single-Cell Oils ............................................. 709 1. Oils and Fats........................................................................................................ 709 2. Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids................................................................................ 711 3. Wax Esters........................................................................................................... 712 4. Biosurfactants ...................................................................................................... 712

B. Biotransformation of Fats and Lipids Using Whole Microbial Cells.......................... 714 1. Wax Esters........................................................................................................... 714 2. Hydroxy Acids and Other Oxygenated Fatty Acids ........................................... 714 3. Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids................................................................................ 718 4. Dicarboxylic Acids.............................................................................................. 718 5. Ketones and Lactones ......................................................................................... 719

III. Modification of Fats and Other Lipids Using Isolated Enzymes ........................................ 720 A. Triacylglycerol Lipases................................................................................................ 720

1. Structured Triacylglycerols ................................................................................. 721 2. Bioesters, Long-Chain Esters, and Flavor Esters................................................ 724 3. Wax Esters and Steryl Esters .............................................................................. 724 4. Monoacylglycerols and Diacylglycerols ............................................................. 726 5. Lipophilic Phenolics............................................................................................ 727 6. Lactones and Estolides ........................................................................................ 729 7. Fatty Acid Esters of Sugars, Alkylglycosides, and Other Hydroxy Compounds.. 729 8. Amides................................................................................................................. 730 9. Fatty Acids .......................................................................................................... 731 10. Phospholipids ...................................................................................................... 738

B. Phospholipases ............................................................................................................. 738 1. Phospholipids Modified by Phospholipases A1 and A2

and Triacylglycerol Lipases ................................................................................ 738 2. Phospholipids Modified by Phospholipase D ..................................................... 741

C. Other Enzymes ............................................................................................................. 742 1. Lipoxygenases ..................................................................................................... 742 2. Oxygenases.......................................................................................................... 742 3. Epoxide Hydrolases............................................................................................. 744

IV. Use of Enzymes in Technology of Oilseeds, Oils, and Fats............................................... 744 A. Enzymes for Pretreatment of Oilseeds before Oil Extraction ..................................... 745 B. Enzymatic Degumming of Oils ................................................................................... 746

V. Perspectives.......................................................................................................................... 748 References ..................................................................................................................................... 748

Lipid biotechnology broadly covers the areas outlined in Scheme 28.1. Genetic engineering of oilseeds and oil-bearing fruits for improved agronomic properties and altered fatty acid and lipid composition is a rapidly expanding area of lipid biotechnology [1]. Plant genetic engineering of edible oilseed crops is covered in Chapter 32 of this book.