chapter  1
Nomenclature and Classification of Lipids
Pages 36

I. Definitions of Lipids ................................................................................................................ 3 II. Lipid Classifications................................................................................................................. 4

A. Standard IUPAC Nomenclature of Fatty Acids .............................................................. 5 B. Common (Trivial) Nomenclature of Fatty Acids ............................................................ 7 C. Shorthand (v) Nomenclature of Fatty Acids ................................................................... 8

III. Lipid Classes ............................................................................................................................ 9 A. Fatty Acids ....................................................................................................................... 9

1. Saturated Fatty Acids ................................................................................................ 9 2. Unsaturated Fatty Acids .......................................................................................... 10 3. Acetylenic Fatty Acids ............................................................................................ 12 4. Trans Fatty Acids.................................................................................................... 15 5. Branched Fatty Acids .............................................................................................. 16 6. Cyclic Fatty Acids................................................................................................... 16 7. Hydroxy and Epoxy Fatty Acids ............................................................................ 17 8. Furanoid Fatty Acids............................................................................................... 18

B. Acylglycerols ................................................................................................................. 20 C. Sterols and Sterol Esters ................................................................................................ 22 D. Waxes............................................................................................................................. 25 E. Phosphoglycerides (Phospholipids) ............................................................................... 26 F. Ether(Phospho)Glycerides (Plasmalogens) .................................................................... 28 G. Glyceroglycolipids (Glycosylglycolipids) ..................................................................... 28 H. Sphingolipids ................................................................................................................. 29 I. Fat-Soluble Vitamins ..................................................................................................... 30

1. Vitamin A................................................................................................................ 30 2. Vitamin D................................................................................................................ 31 3. Vitamin E ................................................................................................................ 32 4. Vitamin K................................................................................................................ 32

J. Hydrocarbons................................................................................................................. 34 IV. Summary ................................................................................................................................ 35 References ....................................................................................................................................... 35

No exact definition of lipids exists. Christie [1] defines lipids as ‘‘a wide variety of natural products including fatty acids and their derivatives, steroids, terpenes, carotenoids, and bile acids, which have in common a ready solubility in organic solvents such as diethyl ether, hexane, benzene, chloroform, or methanol.’’