Inammatory Bowel Disease
Inammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a chronic illness that is characterized by unremitting intestinal inammation with tissue injury caused by increased oxidative and metabolic stress. Increased energy, macronutrient, micronutrient, and electrolyte requirements result from thermodynamic demands of inammation and tissue losses from intestinal injury. Consequent protein-calorie malnutrition and micronutrient deciencies are common among these patients and require close supervision and corrective supplementation(Table 15.1) . Along these lines, food harbors nutrients that are vital for optimal cellular function (i.e., antioxidants, polyphenols, omega-3-fatty acids, etc.) and that regulate key components of the inammatory cascade. Diet plays an important role in downregulating the unresolved inammation of IBD while optimizing healing and immunity. Thus, dietary and nutrient strategies have been studied as primary treatment in IBD. We review the nutritional consequences and therapy of inammatory bowel disease.