chapter  39
20 Pages

Prostate Cancer : Food and Nutrients That May Slow Disease Progression

It is estimated that there will be more than 249,000 diagnoses of, and approximately 34,000 deaths from, prostate cancer (CaP) in 2012 [1]. Detection of this disease earlier, as a consequence of the introduction of the prostate specic antigen (PSA) blood test, has been recognized by the National Cancer Institute (NCI) as one factor contributing to lowering the CaP mortality rate in the past few years [2-5]. While PSA is routinely used for prostate cancer screening, concerns have emerged regarding the absence of evidence that screening itself directly decreases mortality. In 2011, the United States Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) recommended against screening for prostate cancer using PSA in healthy men. This USPSTF recommendation is based on studies concluding that PSA-based screening results in small or no reduction in CaP-specic mortality and is associated with harms related to subsequent evaluation and treatments [6]. However, the value of the PSA test may be increased by considering PSA velocity (PSAV) or a sustained rise in PSA rather than the absolute PSA value [7]. The prostate cancer gene 3 (PCA3) and the percentage free PSA (%fPSA) can also enhance the screening potential of CaP [8].