Weibo Caia,b and Xiaoyuan Chenca Departments of Radiology and Medical Physics, School of Medicine and Public Health, University of Wisconsin – Madison, Madison, Wisconsin, USAb University of Wisconsin Paul P. Carbone Comprehensive Cancer Center, Madison, Wisconsin, USA
email@example.com Laboratory of Molecular Imaging and Nanomedicine, National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland, USA
Nanotechnology, an interdisciplinary research field involving chemistry, engineering, biology, material science, and medicine, has enormous potential for early detection, accurate diagnosis, and personalized treatment of diseases. With the size of many orders of magnitude smaller than human cells, nanoparticles can offer unprecedented interactions with biomolecules both on the surface of and inside the cells, which may revolutionize disease diagnosis and treatment. Over the last decade, numerous nanotechnology centers have been established worldwide, and it is expected that nanotechnology will mature into a clinically useful field in the near future [55, 116]. To date, the most well-studied nanoparticles include liposomes [37, 42], quantum dots (QDs) [16, 80], paramagnetic nanoparticles , nanowires , carbon nanotubes , gold nanoparticles , nanoshells , and many others [11, 38].