Carbamazepine is a tricyclic anticonvulsant drug that has activity against partial seizures of complex symptomology, generalized tonic-clonic seizures, and mixed seizure patterns, and provides pain relief of trigeminal or glosspharyngeal neuralgia. Therapeutic efficacy has been found for carbamazepine in the treatment of bipolar and other affective disorders, resistant schizophrenia, ethanol withdrawal, restless leg syndrome, and posttraumatic disorders. In laboratory animal studies, carbamazepine was developmentally toxic in both mice and rats when given orally during the organogenesis period of gestation. Carbamazepine is near average in terms of size. It is a hydrophobic molecule with average polarity and hydrogen bonding capability. Evaluation of the developmental toxicity of carbamazepine is perhaps best considered from data in which the drug was used in monotherapy.