Quinine is an alkaloid obtained from the plant genus Cinchona; dried bark of the tree contains ~0.8 to 4% of the chemical. It has had many uses; it was marketed prior to the establishment of the US Food and Drug Administration, in 1938, primarily in conjunction with other agents as an antimalarial drug, as a skeletal muscle relaxant, and as a flavoring agent in foods and beverages. The chemical is known by its generic name, and the salts of quinine are known by a variety of trade names, including but not limited to Quinamm®, Quine®, Quinsan®, Biquinate®, Dentojel®, Quiphile®, Quinaminoph®, and Quinbisan®. Quinine has been tested in a variety of animal species for developmental toxicity. A variety of birth defects associated with quinine administration were reported in the literature. Quinine is a larger compound of lower polarity. It is a hydrophobic molecule and can engage in hydrogen bonding interactions.