Impact of olfactory predators on the behavior of female ungulates during parturition and on the behavior of their young
To survive, young ungulates must avoid detection by predators. As is true in most situations, humans are aware of the cryptic nature of fawns and calves and how hard they are to locate visually. We are less aware of the methods used by these young to avoid
detection through olfaction. Likewise, many scientists have examined how neonates avoid detection by visual predators, but few studies have examined how they avoid detection by olfactory predators (Caro 2005). As we have discussed in this book, olfactory predators have difficulty finding prey when atmospheric turbulence and updrafts are present, when prey produce few odorants, or when atmospheric conditions are unfavorable. This chapter examines whether young fawns, calves, and their mothers take advantage of these locations and conditions to lessen the probability of detection by olfactory predators.