Introduction to Fermentation
Fermentation utilizes metabolic and enzyme activity of microorganisms to transform organic compounds into different products. With genetic engineering technology, scientists can manipulate genes controlling cellular protein expression to produce structured proteins or other biomolecules. Cell-derived biopharmaceuticals are currently licensed for human use around the world, including interferons, human enzymes, and hormones — all produced through recombinant DNA technology. Ordinary fermentation encompasses processes and products that are not covered in this study. Solid substrate fermentation that produces bread and cheese is not covered here. Fermentation is deﬁned as the process of growing a culture of microorganisms in a nutrient media, thereby converting feed material into desired end products.