chapter  9
46 Pages

Character-impact flavor compounds

I. Introduction ................................................................................................ 223 II. Character-impact flavors in foods........................................................... 224

A. Herb, spice, and seasoning flavors ................................................. 225 B. Fruit flavors......................................................................................... 229 C. Vegetable flavors ................................................................................ 234 D. Maillard-type, brown, and cereal flavors ...................................... 237 E. Nut flavors .......................................................................................... 241 F. Meat and seafood flavors ................................................................. 242 G. Cheese and dairy flavors .................................................................. 245

III. Characterizing aromas in off-flavors...................................................... 247 IV. Conclusion .................................................................................................. 256 References ............................................................................................................ 257

Aroma substances that comprise food flavors occur in nature as complex mixtures of volatile compounds. However, a vast majority of volatile chemicals that have been isolated from natural flavor extracts do not elicit aroma contributions that are reminiscent of the flavor substance. For instance,

n

-hexanal is a component of natural apple flavor [1], however when smelled in isolation, its odor is reminiscent of “green, painty, rancid oil.” Similarly, ethyl butyrate provides a nondescript “fruity” aroma to blackberries, raspberries, and pears, but it does not distinctly describe the flavor quality of any of these individual fruits. It has long been the goal of flavor chemists to elucidate the identity of pure aroma chemicals that possess the unique flavor

character of the natural fruit, vegetable, meat, cheese, or spice that they were derived from. Frequently, these unique flavor substances are referred to as “character-impact compounds” [2].