chapter  1
40 Pages


One of the basic needs of all living creatures is to have safe and secure shelter. Throughout history, humans have demonstrated a remarkable ability to address this need. They have developed capabilities to protect themselves against both natural disasters and hazards associated with man-made activities. In 1989, the world viewed a watershed event with the demise of the Cold War and the former Soviet Union. The so-called “Doomsday Clock” that signified the time remaining for civilization was ritualistically set back. Nations across the globe began reducing their armed forces in response to the peace dividend achieved with increased world stability. Unfortunately, the euphoria did not exist for long. Besides the proliferation of advanced weapon systems (including long range ballistic missiles that can carry nuclear, biological, and chemical devices), one notes a dramatic increase in international terrorism activities.