Ax = d: Least Squares Solution
This chapter contains methods for "solving" matrix equations of the form Dx = d where D is a matrix with more rows (equations) than columns (variables). The normal equations will be developed and used to solve these over determined algebraic systems. Applications include data ﬁtting such as sales predictions, radioactive decay, world population models, ﬂow rate data and parameter identiﬁcation. By-hand calculations will be done as well as implementations in MATLAB for larger and nonlinear problems.