chapter  119
Contrast-Induced Nephropathy
Pages 18

Pharmacokinetics of β-Blockers The pharmacokinetics of various β-adrenergic antagonists are summarized in Table 1. More than 30 βblockers have been developed, but only a few are commonly used in clinical practice. Most are well absorbed after oral administration, with peak concentration occurring 1 to 3 hours after ingestion.β-Blockers exhibit different degrees of lipid solubility (Table 2). Lipid-soluble β-blockers, such as propranolol and metoprolol, are metabolized mainly by the liver and tend to have relatively short plasma half-lives. Hydrophilic β-blockers, such as atenolol and nadolol, are cleared by the kidney and tend to have relatively longer plasma half-lives.The elimination half life of β-blockers varies from 9 minutes for esmolol to 24 hours for nadolol.