chapter  117
High-Risk Percutaneous Coronary Interventions
Pages 11

Late saphenous vein occlusion pathologically is characterized by friable, necrotic “gruel” which is a combination of intimal hyperplasia, lipid deposition, cholesterol crystals, foam cells, thrombus and atherosclerotic plaque. Late saphenous vein occlusion increases with years after bypass surgery; poor lipid control

including both low HDL concentration, high LDL concentration and high triglyceride levels; left ventricular dysfunction; male sex; and active smoking.