chapter  40
Valvular Stenosis
Pages 11

Definition and Causes Aortic stenosis is a disease in which progressive obstruction to left ventricular outflow results in the following: 1) pressure hypertrophy of the left ventricle; 2) symptoms of angina, dyspnea, and syncope; and 3) if untreated,death.The presentation,diagnosis, and eventual treatment of aortic stenosis depend on the cause and severity of the outflow obstruction.The causes can be divided into supravalvular aortic stenosis, fixed subvalvular aortic stenosis, and valvular aortic stenosis (Table 1). Valvular aortic stenosis has many causes, including congenital, unicuspid, or bicuspid aortic valves, rheumatic heart disease, and senile degenerative disease.Two-dimensional and Doppler echocardiography can be used to determine reliably the level of obstruction and to assess the severity of obstruction.