chapter  81
HIV Infection and the Heart
Pages 6

HIV-infected patients with small nonsymptomatic pericardial effusions should be managed conservatively with follow-up echocardiography at regular intervals but without specific diagnostic or therapeutic interventions. Symptomatic patients and those with large effusions require pericardiocentesis and fluid analysis for cytology, culture and biochemical studies. Pericardial biopsy will increase the diagnostic yield, particularly for the diagnosis of tuberculosis.