Lessons from other commodities: fish and meat
In the last two decades active packaging technologies have been presented and reviewed by several authors (Labuza and Breene 1989; Labuza 1993, 1996; Ahvenainen and Hurme 1996; Floros et al. 1997; Day 1998; Vermeiren et al. 1999, 2002; Quintavalla and Vicini 2002; Sivertsvik 2003; Suppakul et al. 2003; Cha and Chinnan 2004; Devlieghere et al. 2004; Ozdemir and Floros 2004; Brody 2005; Kerry et al. 2006); however, few of these technologies have been used commercially by the food industry and even fewer for fish and meat products. The reasons are several: loss and thermolability of active components, cost vs. benefit, and incompatible legislation. This chapter will focus on the most promising technologies for meat and fish products and their limitations. This includes the use of atmosphere modifiers such as oxygen scavengers and carbon dioxide emitters, packaging that controls water or with antimicrobial and antioxidative properties, and indicator mechanisms. Modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) is sometimes regarded
as an active packaging technology; however, because MAP is a well-established method to extend the shelf life of foods (Sivertsvik et al. 2002b), only its novel approaches, such as
soluble gas stabilization
, will be covered in this chapter.