Technique wherein an x-ray source and a flat film (screen) registering an x-ray diffraction pattern are placed on the same side of the sample.
in the direction that is opposite to the direction of the primary beam. The yield of backscattered electrons increases with the atomic number of the substance studied. Backscattered electrons are used in
for gaining data on the topography,
and chemistry of the specimen surface, as well as for crystallographic studies (see