An Assessment Technique for Postural Loading on the Upper Body (LUBA)
The relationship between awkward working postures and the risk of musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs)
has been widely studied in the past. For example, van Wely (1969) discussed the relation between
inadequate work postures and probable sites of pain, and Armstrong et al. (1993) reported a comprehen-
sive review of epidemiological studies examining the relationship between work postures and (MSDs).
Heinsalmi (1986) and Burdof et al. (1991) pointed out that a significant relationship was found
between poor working postures and musculoskeletal-related lost workdays or low-back disorders. Bhat-
nager et al. (1985) indicated that a working posture affects postural discomfort and inspection perform-
ance for printed board reproductions.