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G

Galactose (Figure G.1) is a 6-carbon monosaccharide (a hexose) found in the diet primarily as part of the disaccharide lactose. Other foods containing galactose include peas, lentils, some legumes, organ meats, cereals, and some fruits and vegetables. In the past few years, sports foods providing galactose have gained in popularity, yet little research is available to support a benefit for performance in comparison to other carbohydrates. One study has determined that feeding galactose 45 minutes prior to cycling exercise produces a lower glycemic and insulinemic response in comparison to glucose.235 However, no difference in cycling performance was detected in that study. Another study demonstrated that galactose oxidation during 2 hours of exercise is approximately half that of glucose.236