chapter  4
34 Pages

Excitotoxicity, Oxidative Stress, and Apoptosis in Ischemic Neuronal Death

Hypoxic-Ischemic Injury ....................................................86 4.3. Oxidative Stress ............................................................................................86

4.3.1 Background ........................................................................................86 4.3.2 Free Radical Production During Hypoxic Ischemia and

Reperfusion ........................................................................................87 4.3.2.1 Free Radical Production in Mitochondria ..........................87 4.3.2.2 Activation of Xanthine Oxidase by Calcium-Activated

Proteases ............................................................................88 4.3.2.3 ROS Production by Transition Metals ................................88 4.3.2.4 Reactive Nitrogen Radicals ................................................89 4.3.2.5 Metabolism of Arachidonic Acid........................................89 4.3.2.6 Apoptosis vs. Oncosis ........................................................90 4.3.2.7 Limitation of Antioxidant Therapy for Hypoxic

Ischemic Injury ..................................................................90 4.4. Apoptosis ......................................................................................................90