chapter  5
64 Pages

Computational Intelligence in Analysis of Electromyography Signals

The human skeletal muscular system is primarily responsible for providing the forces required to perform various actions. This system is composed of two subsystems; namely, the nervous system and the muscular system, which together form the neuromuscular system. The CNS provides control via nerve signals and innervation of the muscles. Nerves can be thought of as wires conducting electrical currents, where the nerve heads (nuclei) originate in the spinal column and their long axonal bodies extend far and deep, innervating individual motor units in various muscles. The skeletal-muscular system consists of muscle groups attached to bones via tendons and movement is produced when nerve signals cause muscle contractions and relaxations that either pull or release the bone. As with the previous cardiovascular system and any other physiological system of the human body, the neuromuscular system is also susceptible to diseases. Neuromuscular diseases include disorders originating in the nervous system (e.g., spinal column conduction), in the neuromuscular junctions, and in the muscle fibers (e.g., motor units). These disorders have different degrees of severity ranging from minor loss of strength to amputation due to neuron or muscle death. In more severe disorders such as amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), death is almost certain.