Computational Intelligence Techniques
We have always held a fascination for the mechanisms of learning ever since the time of the Greeks and the great Aristotle (400 BC) himself. In fact, Aristotle was the ﬁrst to propose that memory was composed of individual elements linked by diﬀerent mechanisms (Medler, 1998). His ideas later formed the philosophy of connectionism, a study devoted to the connectionist model, which grew richer from further ideas from diﬀerent schools of thought. There were contributions from philosophers such as Descartes, psychologists such as Spencer (Spencer’s connexions), James (James associative memory), and Thorndike (Thorndike’s connectionism), and even neuropsychological inﬂuences from Lashley and Hebb (Hebbian learning) (Pollack, 1989; Medler, 1998).