Applications of Chemical Conjugation in the Preparation of Immunoconjugates and Immunogens
As mentioned in Chapter 1, chemical conjugation is a process to cross-link unrelated molecules that normally do not have any afŠnity for each other. In this chapter, we will consider covalent bonding between immunoglobulins and reporter groups (usually an enzyme) to form immunoconjugates for immunoassays and haptens and proteins to form hapten-carrier conjugates for immunization to produce hapten-speciŠc antibodies. In the next chapter, we will consider covalent binding between toxic molecules and antibodies or other proteins to form immunotoxins and tissue-directed conjugates for therapeutic applications. As may be realized, chemical conjugation has widespread applications in biotechnology. From the preparation of immunogens to cell-targeted cancer drugs, from immunoassays to puriŠcation of macromolecules, chemical cross-linking reagents are used to prepare the necessary components. Examples are provided in this chapter to illustrate how these cross-linkers are employed in the area of chemical analysis involving immunoglobulins.