Surface Properties and Phenomena
Surface properties (surface and interphase tension) and surface phenomena (wettability, adsorption electrocapillary phenomena) have a significant influence on many aspects of welding and surfacing processes. Weldability of dissimilar metals and composite materials, formation of the weld and the metal deposit, and of various defects (pores, non-metallic inclusions, solidification cracks, etc.), the hydrodynamic processes in the weld pool, metal structure, and many other properties are to varying degrees related to the surface properties and phenomena. Therefore, it is necessary to know them and take them into account in the development of welding and surfacing technologies, as well as welding consumables.