chapter  15
32 Pages

Insulin Resistance and Infl ammatory Signaling Pathways Modulated by High-Fat Diet

Transcriptional Cascades .......................................................... 393 15.4 High-Fat Diet-Induced Modulation of GLUT4 Translocation

Signaling Pathways ................................................................................ 394 15.4.1 Insulin-Mediated GLUT4 Translocation Signaling

Pathways: Overview ................................................................. 394 15.4.2 High-Fat Diet-Induced Modulation of GLUT4 Translocation ... 396

15.5 High-Fat Diet-Induced Modulation of Infl ammatory Signaling Pathways ................................................................................................ 398 15.5.1 Evolutional Perspectives on the Lineage of Body Fat,

Infl ammation, and Insulin Resistance ...................................... 398

15.5.2 Adipocytokines: Mediators of Insulin Resistance .................... 399 15.5.3 Molecular Signaling That Links Infl ammation and Insulin

Resistance ................................................................................. 400 15.5.4 Toll-Like Receptor Signaling Pathways ................................... 401 15.5.5 High-Fat Diet-Induced Modulation of Toll-Like Receptor

4-Mediated Insulin Resistance ................................................ 404 15.5.6 Dietary Fatty Acid and Toll-Like Receptor 2-Mediated

Insulin Resistance..................................................................... 405 Acknowledgments ............................................................................................. 406 References ......................................................................................................... 406

Obesity and associated disorders, of which incidences have increased dramatically worldwide in the last decades, give a serious threat to the current and future health of mankind on Earth. The World Health Organization (WHO) estimates that more than 1 billion adults worldwide are overweight and 300 million are clinically obese, based on the body mass index (BMI) equal to or over 30 kg/m2 [1]. Remarkably frightening is the similarly marked increase in obesity among children not only in Western countries, but also in the developing countries of the world [2,3]. Obesity is associated with many additional health problems, including increased risk of insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes, nonalcoholic fatty liver, atherosclerosis, degenerative disorders such as dementia, some immune-mediated disorders like asthma, and certain cancers [4,5]. This cluster of obesity-related pathologies has also started to emerge in children at young ages, a manifestation that was implausible only a few decades ago.