Engineering Better Inﬂuenza Vaccines: Traditional and New Approaches
Inﬂuenza and humans are long-time companions. The disease may have been mentioned by Hippocrates as early as in the 412 B.C. as ‘‘the cough of Perinthus’’ in his work Of the Epidemics. The ﬁrst clear description of inﬂuenza dates to 1100s [1,2]. The word ‘‘inﬂuenza’’ is originating from the fourteenth century Italy meaning ‘‘ﬂow of liquid’’ or ‘‘inﬂuence,’’ the latter perhaps suggesting its use by the contemporary scholars to describe the impact of the stars on the appearance of inﬂuenza epidemics. In English, inﬂuenza is commonly abbreviated to ‘‘ﬂu.’’ The synonym grippe is more often used in other languages including French, German, Russian, and Spanish.