Macroinvertebrate Assemblages Associated with Patterns in Land Use and Water Quality
The dose-response relationship is the most fundamental and pervasive concept in toxicology (Eaton and Klaassen, 1996). The shape of the dose-response relationship reveals mechanisms of toxicity and thresholds. Standardized evaluations of dose response are used to predict biologically safe toxicant concentrations (e.g., LD
). The dose response also provides an intuitive means of comparing the toxicity of a wide variety of xenobiotics. Traditional aquatic toxicology evaluates dose responses for individuals and populations (Rand et al., 1995). Scientific progress in ecotoxicology will require the extension of dose responses to communities and ecosystems (Cairns, 1992). Toward that end, quantification of ecological response signatures for specific anthropogenic stressors is crucial.