chapter  18
22 Pages

Effects of Silviculture on Indices of Biotic Integrity for Benthic Macroinvertebrate and Fish Assemblages in Northeastern Minnesota’s Northern Lakes and Forest Ecoregion (USA)

Few boreal waters are managed in a sustainable manner since cumulative effects are generally not considered (Schindler 1998). Fisheries and water quality have declined in most large water bodies of the southern boreal forest; however, some effects are results of overexploitation, alteration of

flow patterns, introductions of non-native species, and discharge of euthrophic nutrients and persistent contaminants (Bodaly et al., 1984a, b, 1984, 1993).