Using Biological Criteria for Establishing Restoration and Ecological Recovery Endpoints
An increasing awareness among restoration ecologists is the need to restore damaged ecosystems to some model of a non-impacted environment (Benke, 1990; Fausch et al., 1990). Often these models are to pristine or pre-Columbian conditions and are concerned strictly with habitat (Hughes, 1995). Many pre-Columbian models are unrealistic expectations for industrial areas or heavily impaired urban streams; however, they may be appropriate for rural and least-impacted stream corridors. Environmental accidents such as spills, channelization, stream modifications, or other anthropogenic stresses are situations where biological criteria expectations can be used for evaluating stream restoration options in any stream corridor setting (Rankin and Simon, Chapter 10; Wilhelm et al., Chapter 14).