chapter  4
40 Pages

Aquatic Toxicology of Explosives

The release of explosives into the environment can occur during several stages of munitions production, storage, transport, and usage, including manufacturing, handling, loading, and nal dispersal or disposal. Disposal of munitions in the ocean has been practiced for many decades, particularly after the Second World War [1,2], mostly into depressions of the continental shelf or near continental slopes, but also into the deep sea [3]. The environmental implications of such contamination became the subject of scientic research, which intensied with the decommissioning of military installations in the United States and overseas in the 1990s and

4.1 Introduction ....................................................................................................77 4.2 Aquatic Toxicity of Explosives, Propellants, and Related Chemicals ............ 79

4.2.1 Nitroaromatic Compounds ................................................................. 79 4.2.1.1 Nitrobenzenes ...................................................................... 79 4.2.1.2 Nitrotoluenes ........................................................................ 83 4.2.1.3 Nitrophenols .........................................................................93 4.2.1.4 2,4,6-Trinitrophenylmethylnitramine (Tetryl) .....................98 4.2.1.5 Photoactivation .....................................................................99