chapter  10
26 Pages

Bioconcentration, Bioaccumulation, and Biomagnification of Nitroaromatic and Nitramine Explosives in Terrestrial Systems

Risk Assessment Process ..................................................................234 10.4 Accumulation of Energetic Compounds in Plants ........................................ 235

10.4.1 Nitroaromatics .................................................................................. 235 10.4.2 RDX .................................................................................................. 239 10.4.3 HMX ................................................................................................. 243

10.5 Accumulation of Energetic Compounds in Soil Invertebrates .....................244 10.6 Accumulation of Nitroaromatics and Nitramines in Terrestrial Animals ....245 10.7 Summary ...................................................................................................... 247 Acknowledgments .................................................................................................. 247 References .............................................................................................................. 247

Ordnance manufacturing facilities and other sites that have been heavily contaminated with munitions compounds are currently in the process of evaluation and remediation by the military and other entities. A key component of this process is the estimation of trophic transfer of munitions for assessment of risks to wildlife and development of suitable remedial goals. This chapter outlines the current knowledge of bioaccumulation of munitions compounds in soil. General bioaccumulation principles, environmental degradation, and transformation of energetics (important to understanding of molecular properties; see Chapter 2), followed by summaries of bioaccumulation data for various classes of energetics in different biota are presented. The reader is referred to Chapter 6 for a review of these processes in aquatic environments.