chapter  11
24 Pages

Habitat Disturbance at Explosives-Contaminated Ranges

The sustainability of wildlife populations at explosives-contaminated ranges depends on the presence of adequate habitat as well as the absence of bioavailable concentrations of energetic chemicals in soil that would adversely affect these populations. The extent and importance of habitat disturbance is rarely investigated on ranges where explosives are used. Risk assessments for wildlife at contaminated sites occasionally consider habitat preferences in models of trophic uptake of chemicals [1,2] (see Chapter 10), but almost never consider the potential habitat loss associated with those contaminants or physical disturbance [3]. Ecological risk assessments for explosives-contaminated ranges should consider physical habitat disturbance in addition to exposure to explosives contaminants in order to distinguish habitatbased effects from putative toxicity observed in the eld. Additionally, ecological risk assessments that are intended to include all ecological stressors from live-re training, (e.g., those that may support installation Integrated Natural Resources

11.1 Introduction ................................................................................................ 253 11.2 Munitions Ranges .......................................................................................254 11.3 Spatial Distribution of Contamination and Phytotoxicity .......................... 257 11.4 Spatial Scale of Physical Effects ................................................................260 11.5 Habitat Suitability and Connectivity .......................................................... 261 11.6 Quantifying Habitat Change ...................................................................... 263 11.7 Responses of Species to Disturbance .........................................................265 11.8 Resiliency and Recovery ............................................................................ 267 11.9 Confounding Effects of Multiple Stressors ................................................269 11.10 Conclusion .................................................................................................. 271 Acknowledgments .................................................................................................. 271 References .............................................................................................................. 272

Management Plans) [4], should incorporate the effects of habitat loss, even if these are small in scale compared to the often large areas of military installations characterized by relatively intact vegetation communities. Therefore, a discussion of habitat disturbance on explosives-contaminated ranges is included in this volume on the ecotoxicology of explosives.