chapter  13
4 Pages

Closing Remarks

Environmental contamination with EMs has been adequately characterized in many industrialized countries, including the United States, Canada, and Germany. However, information on the spatial distribution, quantities, and bioavailability of EMs present at former manufacturing plants, disposal sites, and at active military training areas (i.e., Army, Navy, and Air Force ranges), including both terrestrial and underwater sites around the globe, is insufcient. This knowledge gap precludes an accurate evaluation of the local and global environmental impacts of the presence of EMs in aquatic and terrestrial habitats. We hope that continuing progress in the assessments of contaminated sites and the advancements in the basic research of the fate and transport of EMs, as well as the toxicological effects on ecological receptors, will ll the remaining knowledge gaps.