chapter  4
8 Pages


Toxins affect living organisms generally by chemical or physical-chemical ways and cause harmful results. These mechanisms can be examined in the following three groups:

1. Selective chemical effects 2. Nonspecific chemical effects 3. Special toxic effects

Chemical substances show their severe toxic effects under their lethal dose at definite concentrations in a region of the body specific for them. Normal cell components or cell membranes where the chemical substances show their effects in the living organism are named

target points

. These points may be very important for the cell’s functions and the inhibition of these functions by the effect of the chemicals (toxins) damages the cell.