chapter  1
Metals Physical Properties
Pages 336

Electronic Configuration

1s 2s 2p 3s 3p 3d 4s 4p 4d 4f 5s 5p 5d 5f 6s 6p 6d 7s

1 Hydrogen H 1 2 Helium He 2 3 Lithium Li . 1 4 Beryllium Be . 2 5 Boron B . 2 1 6 Carbon C . 2 2 7 Nitrogen N . 2 3 8 Oxygen O . 2 4 9 Fluorine F . 2 5 10 Neon N . 2 6 11 Sodium Na . . . 1 12 Magnesium Mg . . . 2 13 Aluminum Al . . . 2 1 14 Silicon Si . . . 2 2 15 Phosphorus P . . . 2 3 16 Sulfur S . . . 2 4 17 Chlorine Cl . . . 2 5 18 Argon Ar . . . 2 6 19 Potassium K . . . . . 1 20 Calcium Ca . . . . . 2 21 Scandium Sc . . . . . 1 2 22 Titanium Ti . . . . . 2 2 23 Vanadium V . . . . . 3 2 24 Chromium Cr . . . . . 5 1 25 Manganese Mn . . . . . 5 2 26 Iron Fe . . . . . 6 2 27 Cobalt Co . . . . . 7 2 28 Nickel Ni . . . . . 8 2 29 Copper Cu . . . . . 10 1

(Continued)

At. No. Element Sym

1s 2s 2p 3s 3p 3d 4s 4p 4d 4f 5s 5p 5d 5f 6s 6p 6d 7s

30 Zinc Zn . . . . . 10 2 31 Gallium Ga . . . . . 10 2 1 32 Germanium Ge . . . . . 10 2 2 33 Arsenic As . . . . . 10 2 3 34 Selenium Se . . . . . 10 2 4 35 Bromine Br . . . . . 10 2 5 36 Krypton Kr . . . . . 10 2 6 37 Rubidium Rb . . . . . . . . 1 38 Strontium Sr . . . . . . . . 2 39 Yttrium Y . . . . . . . . 1 2 40 Zirconium Zr . . . . . . . . 2 2 41 Niobium Nb . . . . . . . . 4 1 42 Molybdenum Mo . . . . . . . . 5 1 43 Technetium Tc . . . . . . . . 6 1 44 Ruthenium Ru . . . . . . . . 7 1 45 Rhodium Rh . . . . . . . . 8 1 46 Palladium Pd . . . . . . . . 10

47 Silver Ag . . . . . . . . 10 1 48 Cadmium Cd . . . . . . . . 10 2 49 Indium In . . . . . . . . 10 2 1 50 Tin Sn . . . . . . . . 10 2 2 51 Antimony Sb . . . . . . . . 10 2 3 52 Tellurium Te . . . . . . . . 10 2 5 53 Iodine I . . . . . . . . 10 2 5 54 Xenon Xe . . . . . . . . 10 2 6 55 Cesium Ce . . . . . . . . . . . 1 56 Barium Ba . . . . . . . . . . . 2 57 Lanthanum La . . . . . . . . . . . 1 2 58 Cerium Ce . . . . . . . . . 2 . . 2 59 Praseodymium Pr . . . . . . . . . 3 . . 2 60 Neodymium Nd . . . . . . . . . 4 . . 2 61 Promethium Pm . . . . . . . . . 5 . . 2 62 Samarium Sm . . . . . . . . . 6 . . 2 63 Europium Eu . . . . . . . . . 7 . . 2 64 Gadolinium Gd . . . . . . . . . 7 . . 1 2 65 Terbium Tb . . . . . . . . . 9 . . 2 66 Dysprosium Dy . . . . . . . . . 10 . . 2 67 Holmium Ho . . . . . . . . . 11 . . 2 68 Erbium Er . . . . . . . . . 12 . . 2 69 Thulium Tm . . . . . . . . . 13 . . 2 70 Ytterbium Yb . . . . . . . . . 14 . . 2 71 Lutetium Lu . . . . . . . . . 14 . . 1 2 72 Hafnium Hf . . . . . . . . . 14 . . 2 2 73 Tantalum Ta . . . . . . . . . 14 . . 3 2 74 Tungsten W . . . . . . . . . 14 . . 4 2

(Continued)

At. No. Element Sym

1s 2s 2p 3s 3p 3d 4s 4p 4d 4f 5s 5p 5d 5f 6s 6p 6d 7s

75 Rhenium Re . . . . . . . . . 14 . . 5 2 76 Osmium Os . . . . . . . . . 14 . . 6 2 77 Iridium Ir . . . . . . . . . 14 . . 9 78 Platinum Pt . . . . . . . . . 14 . . 9 1 79 Gold Au . . . . . . . . . 14 . . 10 1 80 Mercury Hg . . . . . . . . . 14 . . 10 2 81 Thallium Tl . . . . . . . . . 14 . . 10 2 1 82 Lead Pb . . . . . . . . . 14 . . 10 2 2 83 Bismuth Bi . . . . . . . . . 14 . . 10 2 3 84 Polonium Po . . . . . . . . . 14 . . 10 2 4 85 Asatine At . . . . . . . . . 14 . . 10 2 5 86 Radon Rn . . . . . . . . . 14 . . 10 2 6 87 Francium Fr . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 88 Radium Ra . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 89 Actinium Ac . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 2 90 Thorium Th . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 2 91 Protoactinium Pa . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 . . 1 2 92 Uranium U . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 . . 1 2 93 Neptunium Np . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 . . 1 2 94 Plutonium Pu . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 . . 2 95 Americium Am . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 . . 2 96 Curium Cm . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 . . 1 2 97 Berkelium Bk . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 . . 2 98 Californium Cf . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 . . 2 99 Einsteinium Es . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 . . 2 100 Fermium Fm . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 . . 2 101 Mendelevium Md . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 . . 2 102 Nobelium No . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 . . 2 103 Lawrencium Lw . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 . . 1 2

Hydrogen 1 99.985 2 0.015

Helium 3 0.00013 4 ≈100.0

Lithium 6 7.42 7 92.58

Beryllium 9 100.0

Boron 10 19.78 11 80.22

Carbon 12 98.89 13 1.11

Nitrogen 14 99.63 15 0.37

Oxygen 16 99.76 17 0.04 18 0.20

Fluorine 19 100.0

Neon 20 90.92 21 0.26 22 8.82

Sodium 23 100.0

Magnesium 24 78.70 25 10.13 26 11.17

Aluminum 27 100.0

Silicon 28 92.21 29 4.70 30 3.09

Phosphorus 31 100.0

Sulfur 32 95.0 33 0.76 34 4.22 36 0.014

Chlorine 35 75.53 37 24.47

Argon 36 0.34 38 0.06 40 99.60

(Continued)

Potassium 39 93.1 40a 0.01 41 6.9

Calcium 40 96.97 42 0.64 43 0.14 44 2.06 46 0.003 48 0.18

Scandium 45 100.0

Titanium 46 7.93 47 7.28 48 73.94 49 5.51 50 5.34

Vanadium 50b 0.24 51 99.76

Chromium 50 4.31 52 83.76 53 9.55 54 2.38

Manganese 55 100.0

Iron 54 5.82 56 91.66 57 2.19 58 0.33

Cobalt 59 100.0

Nickel 58 67.84 60 26.23 61 1.19 62 3.66 64 1.08

Copper 63 69.09 65 30.91

Zinc 64 48.89 66 27.81 67 4.11 68 18.57 70 0.62

Gallium 69 60.4 71 39.6

(Continued)

Germanium 70 20.52 72 27.43 73 7.76 74 36.54 76 7.76

Arsenic 75 100.0

Selenium 74 0.87 76 9.02 77 7.58 78 23.52 80 49.82 82 9.19

Bromine 79 50.54 81 49.46

Krypton 78 0.35 80 2.27 82 11.56 83 11.55 84 56.90 86 17.37

Rubidium 85 72.15 87 27.85

Strontium 84 0.56 86 9.86 87 7.02 88 82.56

Yttrium 89 100.0

Zirconium 90 51.46 91 11.23 92 17.11 94 17.40 96 2.80

Niobium 93 100.0

Molybdenum 92 15.84 94 9.04 95 15.72 96 16.53 97 9.46 98 23.78

100 9.63 (Continued)

Ruthenium 96 5.51 98 1.87 99 12.72

100 12.62 101 17.07 102 31.61 104 18.60

Rhodium 103 100.0

Palladium 102 0.96 104 10.97 105 22.23 106 27.33 108 26.71 110 11.81

Silver 107 51.82 109 48.18

Cadmium 106 1.22 108 0.88 110 12.39 111 12.75 112 24.07 113 12.26 114 28.86 116 7.58

Indium 113 4.28 115c 95.72

Tin 112 0.96 114 0.66 115 0.35 116 14.30 117 7.61 118 24.03 119 8.58 120 32.85 122 4.72 124 5.94

Antimony 121 57.25 123 42.75

Tellurium 120 0.09 122 2.46 123 0.87 124 4.61

(Continued)

125 6.99 126 18.71 128 31.79 130 34.48

Iodine 127 100.0

Xenon 124 0.096 126 0.090 128 1.92 129 26.44 130 4.08 131 21.18 132 26.89 134 10.44 136 8.87

Cesium 133 100.0

Barium 130 0.101 132 0.097 134 2.42 135 6.59 136 7.81 137 11.30 138 71.66

Lanthanum 138 0.09 139 99.91

Cerium 136 0.193 138 0.250 140 88.48 142d 11.07

Praseodymium 141 100.0

Neodymium 142 27.11 143 12.17 144 23.85 146 17.22 148 5.73 150 5.62

Samarium 144 3.09 147e 14.97 148f 11.24 149g 13.83 150 7.44 152 26.72 154 22.71

(Continued)

Europium 151 47.82 153 52.18

Gadolinium 152h 0.20 154 2.15 155 14.73 156 20.47 157 15.68 158 24.87 160 21.90

Terbium 159 100.0

Dysprosium 156i 0.052 158 0.090 160 2.29 161 18.88 162 25.53 163 24.97 164 28.18

Holmium 165 100.0

Erbium 162 0.136 164 1.56 166 33.41 167 22.94 168 27.07 170 14.88 186 1.59

Thulium 169 100.0

Ytterbium 168 0.135 170 3.03 171 14.31 172 21.82 173 16.13 174 31.84 176 12.73

Lutetium 175 97.40 176j 2.60

Hafnium 174k 0.18 176 5.20 177 18.50 178 27.14 179 13.75 180 35.24

(Continued)

Tantalum 180 0.012 181 99.988

Tungsten 180 0.14 182 26.41 183 14.40 184 30.64 186 28.41

Rhenium 185 37.07 187l 62.93

Osmium 184 0.018 187 1.64 188 13.3 190 26.4 192 41.0

Iridium 191 37.3 193 62.7

Platinum 190m 0.013 192 0.78 194 32.9 195 33.8 196 25.3 198 7.2

Gold 197 100.0

Mercury 196 0.146 198 10.02 199 16.84 200 23.13 201 13.22 202 29.80 204 6.85

Thallium 203 29.50 205 70.50

Lead 204 1.48 206 23.6 207 22.6 208 52.3

Bismuth 209 100.0

Thorium 232nr 100.0 (Continued)

TABLE 1.3 Periodic Table of the Elements 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 IA VIIA 1 2 H IIA IIIA IVA VA VIA VIIA He 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Li Be B C N O F Ne 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 Na Mg IIIB IVB VB VIB VIIB ----- VIII ----- IB IIB Al Si P S Cl Ar 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 K Ca Sc Ti V Cr Mn Fe Co Ni Cu Zn Ga Ge As Se Br Kr 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 Rb Sr Y Zr Nb Mo Tc Ru Rh Pd Ag Cd In Sn Sb Te I Xe 55 56 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 Cs Ba Hf Ta W Re Os Ir Pt Au Hg Tl Pb Bi Po At Rn 87 88 Fr Ra

57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 La Ce Pr Nd Pm Sm Eu Gd Tb Dy Ho Er Tm Yb Lu 89 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 100 101 102 103 Ac Th Pa U Np Pu Am Cm Bk Cf Es Fm Md No Lw

Uranium 234or 0.0006 235pr 0.72 238qr 99.27

Source: Wang, Y. (Ed.), Handbook of Radioactive Nuclides, The Chemical Rubber Co., Cleveland, 1969, p. 25.