1Chapter 2 New Developments in Membrane-Based Processes for Industrial Applications
The membrane separation technologies of micro ltration (MF), ultra ltration (UF), nano ltration (NF), and reverse osmosis (RO) possess characteristics that make them attractive as wastewater reuse processes. These include
C• ontinuous process, resulting in automatic and uninterrupted operation L• ow energy utilization involving neither phase nor temperature changes M• odular design-no signi cant size limitations M• inimal moving parts with low maintenance requirements N• o effect on the form or chemistry of contaminants D• iscreet membrane barrier to ensure the physical separation of contaminants N• o chemical addition requirements
In this chapter, the history of membrane technology is presented, the fundamentals of these technologies are introduced, engineering design requirements addressed, and testing details described.