chapter  4
HYDRAULICS
Pages 10

Frankly, most of the academic studies [on water] are irrelevant to practical decision-making. But that 5 okay. They 're academicians. They have no responsibility to manage real resources. We have to deal with real things-real dams, real rivers, real demands, real crises.-Eugene Stakhiv, US. Army Corps of Engineers

4.1 INTRODUCTION

T HE purpose of this chapter is to: define hydraulics explain how a knowledge of hydraulics is essential in understanding how water systems work, especially water distribution systems explain how the principles of hydraulics will be useful in other lessons on treatment, storage, and cross-connection control explain why even though we do not have to be licensed waterworks operators to operate a distribution system, the distribution system is essential to the operation of the water system explain that many of the water quality problems in water systems are due to contamination of the water after it leaves the treatment plant. The distribution system may occupy a larger portion of the operator's time than the treatment system explain that basic hydraulic principles apply to all fluids, but we only consider those principles that apply to water in this lesson demonstrate practical applications by performing basic hydraulic calculations explain basic distribution system hydraulics

4.2 DEFINITIONS

Key terms of this chapter are defined as follows:

Pressure the force exerted on a unit area, pressure = weight X height. In water, it is usually measured in psi (pounds per square inch). One foot of water exerts a pressure of 0.433 pound per square inch. Force influence (as a push or pull) that causes motion. Physics: the mass of an object times its acceleration, F = rna. Head the measure of the pressure of water expressed as height of water in feet, 1 psi = 2.3 1 feet of head. Static a nonmoving condition. Headloss the loss of energy, commonly expressed in feet, as a result of friction. The loss is actually a transfer of heat.