Fluorescence-Based Sensors for Bioprocess Monitoring
Biotechnology and bioprocessing have been part of human activity since the first accidental discovery that the ingestion of fermented sugars leads to pleasurable effects and that moldy milk has a heady aroma and savory taste. For thousands of years, bioprocessing has been mainly an art. The quality of products is judged based on the instincts and experience of masters. Only in the last century, specifically with the first commercial production of antibiotics, was there a thrust toward more systematic and controlled bioprocessing.