chapter  3
44 Pages

Virtual Organizations

Each era provided its signature form of organization (Lipnack and Stamps 2000, p. 35-36) due the consequence of the evolution of societal skills:

In the Nomadic Era, beginning between 2 to 3 millions years ago, people • mostly bettered their small-group skills as hunter-gatherers. At this point in time, they captured the ability to speak, make simple tools, and set up small “organizations” with the next of kin. Hierarchy • with its ranks came up with the remarkable development of agriculture and then feudalism. The agricultural era began approximately 10,000 to 12,000 years ago and bore the mark of a dramatic shift from the Nomadic Era. Cultivation and herding replaced hunting and gathering. The Industrial Age with its very considerable number of factories brought • bureaucracy. Deeply conditioned by ideas and technologies from the fifteenth century, this age became striking in the eighteenth century, dominant in the nineteenth, and eventually mature in the twentieth. The population at that time exploded and urbanized tremendously. The Information Age with its clear imperative to connect gave birth to the • digital civilization structure, networks. The world’s leading economies have become knowledge-based, electronically connected, and globally interdependent. Virtual and intelligent organization conceptions are the organizing imperatives of the modern management system of a modern enterprise in the Information Age (Grudzewski and Hejduk 1998, p. 34).