chapter  6
20 Pages

Chapter Milk Allergens

References .............................................................................................................. 198 6.2 Role of Milk Proteins Originating from Different Animals in the

Induction of an Allergenic Reaction ............................................................. 201 References ..............................................................................................................205 6.3 Changes in Immunoreactivity and Allergenicity of Milk Allergens

during Technological Processes ....................................................................206 6.3.1 Thermal Processing...........................................................................207 6.3.2 Homogenization ................................................................................207 6.3.3 Enzymatic Modi cation ....................................................................208 6.3.4 Modi cation of Milk Protein during Lactic Acid Fermentation .......209 6.3.5 Chemical Modi cation ..................................................................... 210 6.3.6 Gamma Irradiation ............................................................................ 211 6.3.7 Masking of Epitopes ......................................................................... 211

References .............................................................................................................. 211

Barbara Wróblewska

Animal milk produced by cows (Bos Taurus) contains many allergenic proteins, which is why milk and milk products, including lactose, are listed in Annex IIIa of the EU Directive on the labeling of foods for human consumption. Allergy to cow’s milk is the most common food allergy in childhood, especially in the third year of age, but most cases become tolerant to milk within a few years. Sometimes, but less frequently, cow allergy appears in adults. Symptoms caused by allergenic proteins in cow’s milk are various and affect nearly all human systems. The easiest ones to observe and associate with Cow’s Milk Allergy (CMA) are gastrointestinal symptoms such as abdominal cramps, loose stool, diarrhea, vomiting, chronic constipation, colic, eosinophilic gastroenteritis, nausea, and edema of the tongue. Cutaneous symptoms, including atopic dermatitis, angioedema, urticaria, redness, and pruritus, are embarrassing for both the

sufferers and their closest circles. There can also be symptoms from the respiratory system, for example, allergic nasal blockade, cough, bronchospasm, sneezing, wheezing, and asthma. The most dangerous are systemic reactions, such as anaphylaxis and exercise-induced anaphylaxis, which can even cause death.